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Types of Personal Injury Losses

The term Personal Injury is the term commonly used to describe a physical injury an individual can sustained, usually after a traumatic event, such as an auto accident or a fall. If you have suffered a personal injury as a result of an accident, you need to know and understand your legal rights. Call or e-mail Carabin Shaw, we can explain your rights to you and we can help. Call us day or night at 800-862-1260.

Amputations - Car accidents, along with work place injuries, account for 25% of all amputations in the United States.

Back Injury - Back injuries sustained in accidents caused by another person can result in years of medical treatment. If you have suffered an back injury you will need medical attention.

Brain Injury or Brain Damage - An accident victim who suffers a brain injury needs an attorney who understands future medical and monetary needs.

Comas - Comas can result from a brain injury or head injury sustained in a car accident caused by another person's negligence.

Burns - Burn injuries can be devastating and can require years of medical care, if not care for the remainder of ones life.

Death (Fatal Injury) - Family members need experienced legal assistance when an accident results in the death of a loved one. In Texas the children, spouse and/or parents of the deceased can present a wrongful death claim.

Facial Injuries - Facial injuries or disfiguring injuries can be devastating. We recommend that plastic surgeons or other specialist be brought in to coordinate medical care.

Fractures - With these types of injuries we recommend that an orthopedic specialist be brought in to coordinate medical care.

Head Injury - Head injuries can result from a car accident, a slip and fall accident, or many other scenarios. A neurologist will be needed, in such cases. If you suffer a head injury due to someone's negligence or carelessness, contact our lawyers today.

Road Rash - Road burns or scrapes can occur when an occupant is thrown from a motorcycle or a vehicle. These injuries are very common among motorcycle accident victims.

Neck Injury - Neck injuries can result from any level of crash intensity. These injuries can result in a lifetime of pain. If you sustained a neck injury in a car crash caused by another person's negligence, you need to know your legal rights.

Paralysis - If paralysis resulted from an accident caused by another person's negligence, our attorneys can seek recoveries for our clients so that the paralyzed individual will be provided for in the future.

Spinal Cord Injuries - Spinal cord injuries can result from a variety of injuries sustained in a car accident caused by another person's negligence. In such cases our experts can develop a Life Care Plan to assist in the unique care needed for spinal cord injury.

Lumbar or Back Injuries:

A rear impact subjects the lumbar or lower back region to a variety of forces. There is direct loading as well as different loading from the seat back across the lordotic curve. Additionally, the torso moves upward during the ramping process. These forces subject the lumbar region to compression, tension and shearing and affect the entire lumbar region, but are higher in the area of L3-L4 due to the lordotic curve. If there is a rotational component to the collision, due to either occupant position or forces that do not pass through the center of mass of the vehicle, there are also angular forces applied. This situation alters the biomechanics of the collision and concentrates forces in the lower lumbar region to include the sacroiliac area. Lumbar injuries are commonly associated with rear impacts.

Cervical Also Known as Neck Injuries:

During a rear impact of an auto accident, the cervical region of one's spine will naturally pivot at C5-C6 during t5he forces of the collision. In addition, the stresses adjacent areas to different degrees based on the induced rotation of the vehicle or the occupant. For this reason, it is not unusual to also find trauma to the adjacent C3-4, C4-5 and C6-7 regions. Various factors may also injure other portions of the cervical spine. In addition, a rear impact can subject the entire cervical column to tension, compression and shearing. Common Cervical injuries are herniated discs.


In a rear impact, the thoracic region is subjected to a variety of forces. There is direct loading from the seat back as well as different loading from the seat back across the kyphotic curve. Additionally, the torso moves upward during the ramping process. These forces subject the thoracic region to compression, tension and shearing. Thoracic injuries are associated with rear impacts.


Brain injuries are associated with five mechanisms in rear impacts. The first is direct contact with the headrest, the steering wheel or other portions of the interior of the vehicle. (The occupant may not remember this contact.) The second mechanism involves rotational forces applied during the extension/flexion process. The third involves shearing forces applied during the translation of the skull. The fourth identified mechanism deals with biochemical changes. The final mechanism is associated with vascular effects.


There are three primary mechanisms causing shoulder injuries in rear impacts. The first is direct contact from the seat belt or other portions of the interior of the vehicle such as the steering wheel. The second is differential loading of the shoulders and thoracic region due to the induced motion of the occupant. The third mechanism is load transference due to bracing on the part of the occupant. Any of these are capable of causing an injury to the shoulder.


In a rear impact, a driver can apply voluntary muscles to grip the steering wheel. During the initial 100 to 200 milliseconds of the collision, the steering wheel is propelled forward ahead of the body. As the space between the steering wheel and the driver increases, the hands, wrists and arms of the driver are subjected to tension. After the initial movement, the torso of the driver moves forward and the hands, arms and wrists are subjected to compression. Depending on the dynamics of the particular collision, shearing may also occur. While less common, passengers who are projected forward towards the dashboard may also suffer injuries as they attempt to stop their motion. Injuries to the wrist of an occupant struck from behind are consistent with applied forces.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ):

The correlation between TMJ injuries and rear impact collisions is established. One possible injury mechanism involves the extension of the head/neck during the first 250 milliseconds of impact. The initial impact during a rear end collision leaves the head stationary and propels the torso forward. This puts the neck in tension. The tension produced by the neck pulls the lower jaw forward differentially with respect to the upper jaw. As full-scale test reveal, the mouth opens during this part of the collision and the hinge point is the TMJ. Energy and motion cause injury to the TMJ. Full scale testing has also revealed an acceleration spike at the TMJ in rear impacts.

No one ever expects to be injured, but unfortunately, accidents do occur. And when you are injured in an accident, or if it's a loved one or family member who is injured, the problems can be overwhelming. If you or a loved one is injured contact our Law Firm, day or night.

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